Public Art : Cleopatra's needle
Description: Cleopatra's Needle is an Egyptian obelisk dating back
from the reign of Thutmoses (Tuthmosis) III around 1450BC and is one of a pair found in Heliopolis. The 68 feet
(21m) obelisk is made from red granite and weighs 224 tons and is inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphs. The granite
came from the quarries of Aswan in the Nile Valley. The inscriptions on the obelisks were add about two hundred
years later by Ramesses II to commemorate his military victories.
Date Unveiled : The enormous obelisk was winched into position on
the Thames Embankment in September, 1878.
Location: Cleopatra's Needle is located along the Thames, on
Victoria Embankment near the Golden Jubilee , in the middle of two cast iron Sphinxes, London, England. Still no
idea? It's close to the Embankment underground station.
The Background to Cleopatra's Needle : The two obelisks were
originally erected in the ancient city of Helipolis for Thutmose III about 3,000 years ago. In 1819, the Egyptian
obelisk was given to the United Kingdom by Sudan Muhammad Ali in commemoration of the victories of Lord Nelson at
the Battle of the Nile and Sir Ralph Abercromby at the Battle of Alexandria in 1801. Oh, who am I kidding, it was
really a gift to commemorate the British crushing of Napoleon Bonaparte. Despite the generous gift the British
government were rather relunctant to pay for its transportation to London, prefering it remain until the public
could raise the cash.
Fifty nine years later they finally had raised enough money to ship the priceless artifact. Sir William James
Erasmus Wilson, a well known dermatologist, donated £10,000 and the public a further £5,000 for the £15,000
The Headache of Transporting the Obelisk
After the obelisk was dug out of the sand it had been buried in for about 2,000 years, a special cigar shaped
vessel (aptly named the Cleopatra) had to be built to transport the enormous chunk of granite. This task was
given to engineer John Dixon who was in Cairo constructing an iron bridge. His design consisted
of a great iron cylinder, 92 feet (28 m) long and 16 feet (4.9 m) in diameter for the obelisk to be slid
into. The strange craft had a vertical stem and stern, a rudder, two bilge keels, a mast for balancing sails, and a
deck house and was manned by a Captain Carter and a small crew. The Cleopatra was then towed by the steamship,
Everything was going fine and dandy until the 14th October 1877, when a huge storm whipped up in the Bay of
Biscay. The Cleopatra began rolling so badly that Captain Booth from the Olga sent out a rescue boat. In the
treachorous seas the boat capsized and all six crew members were lost. Booth then decided to sail the Olga along
side the Cleopatra in a bid to rescue Captain Carter and the five crew members who were probably decidedly seasick
by now. Once everyone was safely onboard Booth declared the Cleopatra "abandoned and sinking,". Four days later the
abandoned vessel was found floating in the Bay by Spanish trawler boats. The Glasgow steamer
Fitzmaurice took the Cleopatra to Spain for repairs and then lodged a salvage claim of £5,000 which had to be
settled before the vessel and the obelisk could continue the journey. Through negotiations the price was finally
whittled down to £2,000. The paddle tug Anglia, captained by David Glue, was then commissioned to tow the Cleopatra
to the Thames. She finally arrived on the 21st of January, 1878.
The Time Capsule: In a very Victorian move, a time capsule was
buried near the front of the Needle's pedestal. The capsule included : a portrait of Queen Victoria, a map of
London, 10 daily newspapers, 12 photographs of English women , a box of hairpins , a box of cigars, several tobacco
pipes, a set of imperial weights, a baby’s bottle, some children’s toys, a shilling razor, a hydraulic jack and
some samples of the cable used to erect the obelisk, a man's lounge suit, the complete dress and accessories of the
kind that a fashionable woman, a 3" bronze model of the monument, a complete set of British coins, a rupee, a
written history of the obelisk's journey to London (including the near disaster), plans on vellum, a translation of
the inscriptions, copies of the bible in several languages, a copy of Whitaker’s Almanack and a Bradshaw Railway
Guide. I'm not sure the sun god Ra would be all that impressed!
The Haunting of the Needle : There are not too many pieces of
public art that can boast being haunted, but Cleopatra's Needle can. Several people have claimed to have seen the
ghost of a naked man jump from the base into the Thames without making a splash, while others have said to have
heard a mocking laugh. The area near the Needle has the highest suicide rate for people wanting to end it all in
The obelisk's only link to Cleopatra, was she had them moved to Alexandra so they could be placed outside the
Caesareum, which is a temple built in honour of Mark Antony.
At some stage both obelisks were toppled and the faces buried which miraculously preserved most of the
hieroglyphs from the effects of weathering.
The other Cleopatra Needle is in New York's Central Park.
None of Pharaoh Thutmoses III obelisks are standing in Egypt.
Cleopatra's Needle was original destined for outside the Houses of Parliament by the idea was rejected.
The original Master Stone Mason who worked on the granite foundation was William Henry Gould (1822–1891).
Obelisks : An obelisk is a tall four sided pointed pillar which ends with a pyramid like shape on top (which is
said to reemble a "petrified ray" of the sundisk). Obelisks were very popular in ancient Egyptian architecture.
Built in pairs they were place at the entrance to their temples.The obelisk symbolized the sun god Ra and many
thought that the god existed within the structure. It is believed that there are 29 ancient Egytian obelisks still
standing, more than half of which are scattered around the world.
So where are these obelisks?
Pharaoh Tuthmosis I, Karnak Temple, Luxor
Pharaoh Ramses II, Luxor Temple
Pharaoh Hatshepsut, Karnak Temple, Luxor
Pharaoh Senusret I, Al-Masalla area of Al-Matariyyah district in Heliopolis, Cairo
Pharaoh Ramses III, Luxor Museum
Pharaoh Ramses II, Gezira Island, Cairo
Pharaoh Ramses II, Cairo International Airport
Pharaoh Seti II, Karnak Temple, Luxor
Pharaoh Senusret I, Faiyum (ancient site of Crocodilopolis)
Pharaoh Ramses II, Luxor Obelisk, in Place de la Concorde, Paris
Pharaoh Tuthmosis III / Tuthmosis IV," Lateranense", Piazza di San Giovanni , Laterano, Rome
Pharaoh unknown, "vaticano", Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City
Pharaoh Seti I / Ramses II, "Flaminio", Piazza del Popolo, Rome
Pharaoh Psammetichus II, "Solare", Piazza di Montecitorio, Rome
Pharaoh Ramses II, "Macuteo", Piazza della Rotonda, Rome
Pharaoh Apries, "Minerveo", Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome
Pharaoh Ramses II, "Gogali", Baths of Diocletian, Rome
Pharaoh Ramses II, "Matteiano", Villa Celimontana, Rome
Pharaoh unknown, Piazza del Duomo, Catania (Sicily)
Pharaoh unknown, Boboli Gardens (Florence)
Pharaoh unknown, Urbino Obelisco di Benevento
Pharaoh Ramses II, Poznan Archaeological Museum, Poznan (on loan from Agyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung,
Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, in Square of Horses, Istanbul
Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, "Cleopatra's Needle", on Victoria Embankment, London
Pharaoh Amenhotep II, in the Oriental Museum, University of Durham
Pharaoh Ptolemy IX, Philae obelisk, at Kingston Lacy, near Wimborne Minster, Dorset
Pharaoh Nectanebo II, British Museum, London (pair of obelisks)
Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, "Cleopatra's Needle", in Central Park, New York